Particulate emissions of a modern diesel passenger car under laboratory and real-world transient driving conditions

Hugo Wihersaari, Liisa Pirjola, Panu Karjalainen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Kari Kulmala, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)
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Exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles are significant sources of air pollution. In this study, particle number emissions and size distributions of a modern Euro 5b -compliant diesel passenger car exhaust were measured under the NEDC and US06 standard cycles as well as during different transient driving cycles. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer; in addition, the transient cycles were repeated on-road by a chase method. Since the diesel particulate filter (DPF) removed practically all particles from the engine exhaust, it was by-passed during most of the measurements in order to determine effects of lubricant on the engine-out exhaust aerosol. Driving conditions and lubricant properties strongly affected exhaust emissions, especially the number emissions and volatility properties of particles. During acceleration and steady speeds particle emissions consisted of non-volatile soot particles mainly larger than ∼50 nm independently of the lubricant used. Instead, during engine motoring particle number size distribution was bimodal with the modes peaking at 10–20 nm and 100 nm. Thermal treatment indicated that the larger mode consisted of non-volatile particles, whereas the nanoparticles had a non-volatile core with volatile material condensed on the surfaces; approximately, 59–64% of the emitted nanoparticles evaporated. Since during engine braking the engine was not fueled, the origin of these particles is lubricant oil. The particle number emission factors over the different cycles varied from 1.0 × 1014 to 1.3 × 1015 #/km, and engine motoring related particle emissions contributed 12–65% of the total particle emissions. The results from the laboratory and on-road transient tests agreed well. According to authors’ knowledge, high particle formation during engine braking under real-world driving conditions has not been reported from diesel passenger cars.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114948
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Issue numberPart B
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Diesel exhaust
  • Engine motoring
  • Lubricant
  • Nanoparticle emissions
  • Real-drive emissions

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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