Pay-Per-X Business Models for Equipment Manufacturing Companies: A Maturity Model

Joonas Schroderus, Sameer Mittal, Karan Menon, Lester Allan Lasrado, Hannu Kärkkäinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Pay-per-X (PPX) business models are models where the ownership of the product is not transferred to the customer, but the customer has a right to use the product. The implementation of PPX business models can be time-taking, and complex because many company functions need to interact with each other, especially for equipment manufacturing industries (EMIs). The aim of this paper is to design a PPX maturity model for EMIs using a systematic maturity model development process. We present a PPX maturity model for EMIs with 7 dimensions, 19 sub-dimensions, 5 maturity levels, and relevant boundary conditions. This PPX maturity model is developed empirically with academic and industry experts from the maturity model and PPX perspective. The developed PPX maturity model will allow the EMIs to assess their current as-is situation in the most critical areas of PPX implementation and formulate a roadmap toward the implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProduct Lifecycle Management. PLM in Transition Times: The Place of Humans and Transformative Technologies
Subtitle of host publication19th IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2022, Grenoble, France, July 10–13, 2022, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsFrédéric Noël, Felix Nyffenegger, Louis Rivest, Abdelaziz Bouras
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeA4 Article in conference proceedings
EventIFIP International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management - Grenoble, France
Duration: 10 Jul 202213 Jul 2022

Publication series

NameIFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
ISSN (Print)1868-4238
ISSN (Electronic)1868-422X


ConferenceIFIP International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management


  • Business models
  • Maturity model
  • Pay-per-outcome
  • Pay-per-output
  • Pay-per-use
  • Pay-per-X

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems and Management


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