Perspectives for regulating 10 nm particle number emissions based on novel measurement methodologies

Z. Samaras, M. Rieker, E. Papaioannou, W. F. van Dorp, M. Kousoulidou, L. Ntziachristos, J. Andersson, A. Bergmann, S. Hausberger, J. Keskinen, P. Karjalainen, S. Martikainen, A. Mamakos, Ch Haisch, A. Kontses, Z. Toumasatos, L. Landl, M. Bainschab, T. Lähde, O. PiacenzaP. Kreutziger, A. N. Bhave, K. F. Lee, J. Akroyd, M. Kraft, M. Kazemimanesh, A. M. Boies, C. Focsa, D. Duca, Y. Carpentier, C. Pirim, J. A. Noble, O. Lancry, S. Legendre, T. Tritscher, J. Spielvogel, H. G. Horn, A. Pérez, S. Paz, D. Zarvalis, A. Melas, P. Baltzopoulou, N. D. Vlachos, L. Chasapidis, D. Deloglou, E. Daskalos, A. Tsakis, A. G. Konstandopoulos, S. Zinola, S. Di Iorio, F. Catapano, B. M. Vaglieco, H. Burtscher, G. Nicol, D. Zamora, M. Maggiore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Concerns regarding noxious emissions from internal combustion engines have increased over the years. There is a strong need to understand the nature of sub-23 nm particles and to develop measurement techniques to evaluate the feasibility of new regulations for particle number emissions in the sub-23 nm region (down to at least 10 nm). This paper presents the results of three EU-funded projects (DownToTen, PEMs4Nano and SUREAL-23) which supported the understanding, measurement and regulation of particle emissions below 23 nm and have successfully developed sub-23 nm particle measurement devices, specifically laboratory systems and mobile devices for RDE tests. The new technology was validated in chassis dyno tests and on the real road. The results show that sub-23 nm particles are mainly generated at the engine start and during acceleration phases. The innovations show that the technology is mature and robust enough to serve as a basis for regulating sub-23 nm particles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105957
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Aerosol Science
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Internal combustion engines
  • Measurement procedures
  • Particle emissions measurements
  • Particle number
  • Particulate matter
  • Sub-23 nm particles

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Atmospheric Science


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