Pharmacoepidemiological evaluation in prostate cancer: common pitfalls and how to avoid them

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Pharmacoepidemiologic research provides opportunities to evaluate how commonly used drug groups, such as cholesterol-lowering or antidiabetic drugs, may affect the prostate cancer risk or mortality. This type of research is valuable in estimating real-life drug effects. Nonetheless, pharmacoepidemiological studies are prone to multiple sources of bias that mainly arise from systematic differences between medication users and non-users. If these are not appreciated and properly controlled for, there is a risk of obtaining biased results and reaching erroneous conclusions. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of future research, we describe common biases in pharmacoepidemiological studies, particularly in the context of prostate cancer research. We also list common ways to mitigate these biases and to estimate causality between medication use and cancer outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number696
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Common biases
  • Confounding
  • Metabolism
  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Prostate cancer
  • Retrospective studies

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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