Real-Time Implementation of Long-Horizon Direct Model Predictive Control on an Embedded System

Eyke Liegmann, Petros Karamanakos, Ralph Kennel

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This paper deals with the real-time implementation of a long-horizon finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) algorithm on an embedded system. The targeted application is a medium-voltage drive system which means that operation at a very low switching frequency is needed so that the switching power losses are kept relatively low. However, a small sampling interval is required to achieve a fine granularity of switching, and thus ensure superior system performance. This renders the real-time implementation of the controller challenging. To facilitate this, a high level synthesis (HLS) tool, which synthesizes C++ code into VHDL, is employed to enable a higher level of abstraction and faster prototype development of the real-time solver of the long-horizon FCS-MPC problem, namely the sphere decoder. Experimental results based on a small-scale prototype, consisting of a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter and an induction machine, confirm that the algorithm can be executed in real time within the targeted control period of 25 $\mu$s.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications
Early online date7 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Real-time systems
  • Switches
  • Inverters
  • Stator windings
  • Rotors
  • Field programmable gate arrays
  • Decoding
  • Field programmable gate array
  • multilevel converters
  • model predictive control
  • variable speed drive

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


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