Regulation of Salivary Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 1 in Adolescents

Teija Raivisto, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Angelika Silbereisen, Leena Kovanen, Hellevi Ruokonen, Taina Tervahartiala, Jari Haukka, Timo Sorsa, Nagihan Bostanci

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), a member of peptidoglycan recognition proteins, is known to be involved in the proinflammatory response toward bacterial infections. Recently, PGLYRP1 was identified as a ligand for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1). Although PGLYRP1 is involved in immune and inflammatory responses, its levels in initial stages of periodontal disease in adolescents are currently unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate salivary levels of PGLYRP1 and its correlation with TREM-1, polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase (PMN elastase), and an active matrix metalloproteinase 8 (aMMP-8) in adolescents.

    METHODS: Whole saliva samples (n = 537) were collected from 15- to 16-y-old adolescents at Kotka Health Center, Finland, prior to periodontal examination, including measurement of periodontal pocket depth (PPD), visible plaque index (VPI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Adolescents, clustered as periodontally healthy, gingivitis, or subclinical periodontitis, were tested for salivary levels of TREM-1, PGLYRP1, and PMN elastase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and aMMP-8 by a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA).

    RESULTS: Salivary levels of PGLYRP1 and aMMP-8 were significantly higher in adolescents with subclinical periodontitis and gingivitis compared to individuals with healthy periodontium. TREM-1 and PMN elastase levels were higher in adolescents with subclinical periodontitis compared to healthy individuals but did not reach significance. PGLYRP1 correlated positively with BOP, PPD, VPI, aMMP-8, and TREM-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PGLYRP1 levels in adolescents with gingivitis and subclinical periodontitis and its positive correlation with TREM-1 and aMMP-8 may indicate an association of PGLYRP1 with initial stages of periodontal disease. Sex and poor oral hygiene but not smoking are also associated with higher levels of PGLYRP1. However, PGLYRP1 has a lower discriminating capacity and is therefore a less reliable marker alone in the diagnosis of initial stages of periodontal disease in adolescents.

    KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: PGLYRP1, a member of peptidoglycan recognition proteins, is a ligand for TREM-1. Elevated PGLYRP1 levels in adolescents with gingivitis and subclinical periodontitis and its positive correlation with TREM-1 and aMMP-8 may indicate an association of PGLYRP1 with initial stages of periodontal disease. However, it has a lower discriminating capacity and is therefore a less reliable marker alone in the diagnosis of periodontal disease in adolescents.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)332-341
    Number of pages10
    JournalJDR Clinical & Translational Research
    Volume5
    Issue number4
    Early online dateDec 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Keywords

    • PGLYRP1 protein
    • TREM1 protein
    • matrix metalloproteinase 8
    • periodontal diseases
    • saliva
    • teenagers

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

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