Relationships among Bicycle Rider Behaviours, Anger, Aggression, and Crashes in Finland

Steve O’Hern, Elias Willberg, Christoph Fink, Sergio Useche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Riding a bicycle is increasingly encouraged as a sustainable transport solution, especially in urban areas. However, safety concerns, both perceived and actual, can significantly lower the willingness to ride among the population. To support cycling planning and policy in the double task of increasing the levels of cycling while mitigating crash risk, there is a need to better understand the behaviours and attitudes of bicycle riders. In this manuscript, we study a cohort of Finnish bicycle riders through four questionnaires, the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ), Cyclist Risk Perception and Regulation Scale (RPRS), Cyclist Anger Scale (CAS), and Cyclist Aggression Expression Inventory (CAX). Our findings show low self-reported errors and violations, and high levels of knowledge regarding traffic rules among Finnish bicycle riders. Most participants report low levels of aggression, which is generally dealt with in constructive ways, while anger was most commonly a result of interactions with motor vehicles and less with other road users such as pedestrians. To further reduce the crash risk in cycling, our results point to the need for further separation between bicycle riders and motorised vehicles, and for the development of risk perception and positive behaviours among riders, particularly those engaging in risky behaviours.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Behaviour questionnaire
  • Bicycle
  • Cyclist
  • Road safety
  • Road user behaviour

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Safety Research
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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