Reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA)

Jussi P Repo, Erkki J Tukiainen, Risto P Roine, Hannu Kautiainen, Jan Lindahl, Outi Ilves, Salme Järvenpää, Arja Häkkinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: There have previously been no validated foot and ankle-specific patient-reported outcome measures in Finnish.

METHODS: The Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) was translated and adapted into Finnish. Thereafter, 165 patients who had undergone foot and ankle surgery completed a questionnaire set on two separate occasions. Analyses included testing of floor-ceiling effect, internal consistency, reproducibility, and validity.

RESULTS: Minor linguistic differences emerged during the translation. Some structural adjustments were made. The mean (SD) total VAS-FA score was 74 (23). In the three subscales, maximum scores were noted in 2-5% of the responses, and internal consistency ranged from 0.81 to 0.94. Reproducibility was excellent (ICC, 0.97). The total VAS-FA score correlated significantly with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (r=0.84) and the 15D Mobility dimension (r=0.79). The VAS-FA loaded on two factors (pain/movement and problems/limitations).

CONCLUSIONS: The Finnish version of the VAS-FA has high reliability and strong validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-480
Number of pages7
JournalFoot Ankle Surg
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ankle/surgery
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Foot/surgery
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain/diagnosis
  • Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Translating
  • Visual Analog Scale


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