Remote learning experiences of girls, boys and non-binary students

Sanna Oinas, Risto Hotulainen, Satu Koivuhovi, Kristiina Brunila, Mari-Pauliina Vainikainen

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Self-regulated learning (SRL) may determine adapting to online environments. This study is an evaluation of students' (N = 33 912) SRL and integration in remote learning in Finnish lower secondary schools when educational institutions all over the world were urgently closed and teaching was arranged in remote settings due to COVID-19. Neither the teachers nor the students had time to prepare themselves for the transition, resulting in variations in coping. To learn from experiences during the pandemic, we evaluated students' remote learning experiences by using a nationally representative survey. Results of SEM reveal that students’ better preparedness for SRL and positive experiences related to clear guidelines and encouraging feedback from teachers predict more time invested in studying. Surprisingly, regulation of peer learning during remote learning period had the strongest correlation with positive experiences, indicating the need for social interaction when schools were closed. Moreover, results show that girls and non-binary students were slightly more concerned about the amount and quality of support for learning during remote learning compared to boys. Overall, when teaching is implemented via technology, students should not be left to cope with the skills they have, but instead, strategies to regulate their learning should be taught consistently. Opportunities for peer learning need to be kept in mind as they can easily be forgotten when students study online. Technology that is easy to deploy by teachers and enabling gender sensitive peer learning should be developed. An instrument measuring SRL should be updated to study learning in technology-enhanced environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104499
Number of pages12
JournalComputers and Education
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Gender
  • Non-binary students
  • Peer learning
  • Remote learning experiences
  • Self-regulated learning

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Education


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