Residual stresses of MAG-welded ultrahigh-strength steel rectangular hollow sections

Lassi Keränen, Mika Pylvänäinen, Antti Kaijalainen, Tuomas Jokiaho, Juha Tulonen, Anssi Hyvärinen, Minnamari Vippola, Emil Kurvinen

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Residual stresses are an important factor in the performance and stability of welded structures. This study investigates the characteristics and significance of residual stresses in MAG-welded ultrahigh-strength steel rectangular hollow sections. The research incorporates comprehensive X-ray diffraction residual stress measurements, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, statistical analyses, and finite element method simulations to provide valuable insights into the behaviour of welding residual stresses. The results reveal clear microstructural variations between the cold-formed corner and the flat side of the rectangular hollow section caused by welding heat input, emphasizing the need to consider these variations in residual stress assessments. Furthermore, the study examines the dependence of residual stresses on the steel grade, with higher strength steel exhibiting compressive stresses and lower strength materials experiencing tensile stresses in corner areas. Statistical analysis indicates that welding sequence and direction have negligible effects when applying the employed welding sequence. In any case, higher heat input leads to significantly larger residual stresses. Finally, the study presents a novel analytical model based on validated finite element simulations to predict the maximum variation of residual stresses depending on welding heat input. The findings provide valuable insights into the significance of welding residual stresses and their predictability. The comprehensive measurements, simulations and proposed models contributes to a better understanding of residual stress phenomena, facilitating the development of reliable design guidelines for welded structures in various engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117719
JournalEngineering Structures
Early online date24 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2024
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • FEM simulation
  • MAG-welding
  • rectangular hollow section
  • residual stress
  • Ultrahigh-strength steel
  • welding heat input

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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