Respiratory infections and type 1 diabetes: Potential roles in pathogenesis

Roy Wu, Mohsin Mumtaz, Anna J. Maxwell, Sonia R. Isaacs, Jutta E. Laiho, William D. Rawlinson, Heikki Hyöty, Maria E. Craig, Ki Wook Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

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Among the environmental factors associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), viral infections of the gut and pancreas has been investigated most intensely, identifying enterovirus infections as the prime candidate trigger of islet autoimmunity (IA) and T1D development. However, the association between respiratory tract infections (RTI) and IA/T1D is comparatively less known. While there are significant amounts of epidemiological evidence supporting the role of respiratory infections in T1D, there remains a paucity of data characterising infectious agents at the molecular level. This gap in the literature precludes the identification of the specific infectious agents driving the association between RTI and T1D. Furthermore, the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections on the development of IA/T1D remains undeciphered. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence to date, implicating RTIs (viral and non-viral) as potential risk factors for IA/T1D.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2429
Issue number2
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
Publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • autoimmunity
  • respiratory infection
  • type 1 diabetes
  • virome
  • virus

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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