Review article: Systemic consequences of coeliac disease

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    Background: The best-known symptoms of coeliac disease are related to the gastrointestinal tract, but the disease may also present with various systemic manifestations outside the intestine. Some of these consequences may remain permanent in undiagnosed individuals or if the diagnostic delay is prolonged. However, for many of the systemic manifestations, the scientific evidence remains scant and contradictory. Aims and Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the most thoroughly studied and clinically relevant systemic consequences of coeliac disease, especially those that could be prevented or alleviated by early diagnosis. The review is intended particularly for physicians encountering these patients in daily clinical practice. Results: The possible systemic consequences of coeliac disease extend to multiple organ systems, the best studied of which are related to skeletal, reproductive, cardiovascular and neurological systems. Furthermore, the disease is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric comorbidities, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and intestinal adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The various systemic consequences of coeliac disease play a significant role in the overall health of patients. Early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet appear to be beneficial for most, but not all of these conditions. The possible negative metabolic and psychosocial effects of the diet should be acknowledged during follow-up.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)S64-S72
    Issue numberS1
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022
    Publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


    • coeliac disease
    • complication
    • extraintestinal
    • gluten-free diet
    • malignancy
    • manifestation

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 2

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Hepatology
    • Gastroenterology
    • Pharmacology (medical)


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