Robustness, Security and Privacy in Location-Based Services for Future IoT: A Survey

Liang Chen, Sarang Thombre, Kimmo Järvinen, Elena Simona Lohan, Anette Alen-Savikko, Helena Leppäkoski, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Shakila Bu-Pasha, Giorgia Nunzia Ferrara, Salomon Honkala, Jenna Lindqvist, Laura Ruotsalainen, Paivi Korpisaari, Heidi Kuusniemi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    128 Citations (Scopus)
    85 Downloads (Pure)


    Internet of Things (IoT) connects sensing devices to the Internet for the purpose of exchanging information. Location information is one of the most crucial pieces of information required to achieve intelligent and context-aware IoT systems. Recently, positioning and localization functions have been realized in a large amount of IoT systems. However, security and privacy threats related to positioning in IoT have not been sufficiently addressed so far. In this paper, we survey solutions for improving the robustness, security, and privacy of location-based services in IoT systems. First, we provide an in-depth evaluation of the threats and solutions related to both global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and non-GNSS-based solutions. Second, we describe certain cryptographic solutions for security and privacy of positioning and location-based services in IoT. Finally, we discuss the state-of-the-art of policy regulations regarding security of positioning solutions and legal instruments to location data privacy in detail. This survey paper addresses a broad range of security and privacy aspects in IoT-based positioning and localization from both technical and legal points of view and aims to give insight and recommendations for future IoT systems providing more robust, secure, and privacy-preserving location-based services.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8956-8977
    Number of pages22
    JournalIEEE Access
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • cryptography
    • GNSS
    • Internet of Things
    • literature study
    • navigation
    • Positioning
    • privacy
    • security
    • trustworthiness
    • vulnerabilities
    • wireless localization

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Computer Science(all)
    • Materials Science(all)
    • Engineering(all)


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