Running-in in fretting, transition from near-stable friction regime to gross sliding

Jouko Hintikka, Antti Mäntylä, Joona Vaara, Tero Frondelius, Janne Juoksukangas, Arto Lehtovaara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


It has been shown that quenched and tempered steel in gross-sliding fretting conditions, with tens of microns of slip amplitude, leads to fretting induced cracking and high and non-Coulomb friction. At low tangential load levels, there was only insignificant cracking. However, the running condition tends to change from stick to gross-sliding with a slip amplitude of a few micrometres. In this study, novel two-phase fretting experiments were done where quenched and tempered steel contact is run first at low loads that are initially in stick (running-in phase), followed by a gross-sliding phase with a slip amplitude of 35μm. The results show that gross-sliding phase friction was reduced and the fretting induced cracks were shorter when the running-in phase was done at high enough load level and lasted more than 106 load cycles. At the highest running-in load levels, the resulting crack lengths were approximately halved in comparison to experiments without running-in, and it was possible to achieve nearly ideal Coulomb friction in the gross-sliding phase when the running-in duration was 10.2×106 load cycles. It is concluded that it is possible to control fretting-induced friction and cracking by carefully controlled running-in.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106073
Number of pages9
JournalTribology International
Early online dateNov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Fretting
  • Friction
  • Running-in
  • Wear

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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