Scalable and Efficient Clustering for Fingerprint-Based Positioning

Joaquín Torres-Sospedra, Darwin Quezada-Gaibor, Jari Nurmi, Yevgeni Koucheryavy, Elena Simona Lohan, Joaquín Huerta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Indoor Positioning based on wifi fingerprinting needs a reference dataset, also known as a radio map, in order to match the incoming fingerprint in the operational phase with the most similar fingerprint in the dataset and then estimate the device position indoors. Scalability problems may arise when the radio map is large, e.g., providing positioning in large geographical areas or involving crowdsourced data collection. Some researchers divide the radio map into smaller independent clusters, such that the search area is reduced to less dense groups than the initial database with similar features. Thus, the computational load in the operational stage is reduced both at the user devices and on servers. Nevertheless, the clustering models are machine-learning algorithms without specific domain knowledge on indoor positioning or signal propagation. This work proposes several clustering variants to optimize the coarse and fine-grained search and evaluates them over different clustering models and datasets. Moreover, we provide guidelines to obtain efficient and accurate positioning depending on the dataset features. Finally, we show that the proposed new clustering variants reduce the execution time by half and the positioning error by ≈7% with respect to fingerprinting with the traditional clustering models.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3484-3499
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number4
Early online date20 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Affinity Propagation
  • BLE
  • Clustering
  • Clustering algorithms
  • Computational modeling
  • Estimation
  • Fingerprint recognition
  • Fingerprinting
  • Indoor Localization
  • Internet of Things
  • k-Means
  • Receivers
  • RSS
  • Wi-Fi
  • Wireless fidelity

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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