Sleep in Psychotic Disorders: Results From Nationwide SUPER Finland Study

Erik Cederlöf, Minna Holm, Markku Lähteenvuo, Willehard Haaki, Jarmo Hietala, Katja Häkkinen, Erkki Isometsä, Tuomas Jukuri, Risto Kajanne, Olli Kampman, Tuula Kieseppä, Kaisla Lahdensuo, Jouko Lönnqvist, Teemu Männynsalo, Jussi Niemi-Pynttäri, Kimmo Suokas, Jaana Suvisaari, Jari Tiihonen, Hannu Turunen, Asko WegeliusJuha Veijola, Aarno Palotie, Tiina Paunio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Objective: Characterizing sleep in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study is based on the SUPER study sample, which is part of the Stanley Global Neuropsychiatric Genomics Initiative. The study is a multicentre, nationwide Finnish study consisting of patients (N = 8 623) both in primary and specialized health care. The main measurements were sleep duration, difficulties initiating sleep, early morning awakenings, and fatigue. These results were compared with a nationally representative sample of the Finnish population from the Health 2000 survey (N = 7 167) with frequency and logistic regression analyses. Results: Patients had more sleep problems compared with the general population, especially young and middle-aged patients (Difficulties initiating sleep in young patients odds ratio = 12.3, 95% CI 9.8-15.4). Long sleep duration was the most deviating property of the sleep characteristics, being particularly common among young patients with schizophrenia (odds ratio = 27.9, 95% CI 22.1-35.2, 47.4% vs 3.3% prevalence). All sleep problems were associated with worse subjective health. We also conducted a latent class analysis, resulting in a cluster relatively free of sleep problems (58% of patients), an insomnia symptom cluster (26%), and a hypersomnia symptom cluster (15%). Conclusions: In our sample, patients with psychotic disorders have more sleep problems - especially long sleep duration but also insomnia symptoms - compared with the general population. The patients can in a latent class analysis of their sleep symptoms be divided into groups with differing sleep profiles.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbersgac011
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin Open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cluster analysis
  • hypersomnia
  • insomnia
  • sleep problems

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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