Sliding wear behavior of Cold Metal Transfer cladded Stellite 12 hardfacings on martensitic stainless steel

Jaakko Tapiola, Jari Tuominen, Jorma Vihinen, Petri Vuoristo

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Cold metal transfer (CMT) welding technique was used in the manufacturing of hypoeutectic carbide-type Co-based Stellite 12 hardfacings on martensitic stainless steel. It was discovered that the CMT process is capable of producing relatively thick (> 2.5 mm) low diluted single-layer coatings with cored Stellite 12 wire without cracks and pores. These coatings were investigated using microscopy (optical and scanning electron microscopy), X-ray diffraction, and hardness measurements. The high melting point chromium and tungsten particles inside the cored wire were relatively large and therefore remained unmelted in the clad layers. Self-mated sliding wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disc tribometer at room temperature and at 300 °C to determine the wear resistance and friction of the coatings. The coefficients of friction were relatively similar (~ 0.35) at both temperatures. Differences were exhibited in the ~ 40% greater loss of material at high temperature. The wear performance of the CMT clad Stellite 12 coatings did not, however, reach the wear performance of self-mated laser clad Stellite 6 reference material. CMT hardfacing was finally successfully demonstrated on a ring-shaped component.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-584
Number of pages12
JournalWelding in the World
Issue number3
Early online date5 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cold metal transfer
  • CMT
  • overlay welding
  • Hardfacing
  • Stellite
  • sliding wear

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


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