Soft Open Point in Distribution Networks

Khaled Syfullah Fuad, Hossein Hafezi, Kimmo Kauhaniemi, Hannu Laaksonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)


The main objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of soft open point (SOP), an emerging power electronics technology to maximize future distribution networks’ (DNs) resiliency and flexibility as well as increase hosting capacity for distributed energy resources like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. The SOP is currently an active area of research and ongoing development of new control techniques for SOP and optimization algorithm for the optimal use of SOP in DNs produces new techniques until DN operators use it comprehensively in their systems. The motivation for this work is to present the research that has been completed for the SOP and summarize the duties of SOP in DNs according to the literature and propose advanced duties for SOP according to modern standards. Finally, future research directions are mentioned to pave the way for research in the coming years to drive the DNs towards more flexibility and ‘Robust’ from controllability, stability, and protection structure point of view.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210550-210565
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Distribution networks
  • grid-connected converters
  • normally open points
  • power electronics
  • soft open point

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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