Temperament and depressive symptoms: A population-based longitudinal study on Cloninger's psychobiological temperament model

Marko Elovainio, Mika Kivimäki, Sampsa Puttonen, Tarja Heponiemi, Laura Pulkki, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

99 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined whether temperament dimensions, as indicated by Cloninger's psychobiological model [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], predicted depressive symptoms across a 4-year follow-up. Nine hundred ninety-three women and 583 men from the on-going population-based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns" completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory [Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., 1987. Manual for the Revised Beck Depression Inventory. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX; Katainen, S., Räikkönen, K., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., 1999. Adolescent temperament, perceived social support and depressive tendencies as predictors of depressive tendencies in young adulthood. Eur. J. Pers. 13, 183-207] and the Perceived Social Support Scale-R [Blumenthal, J.A., Burg, M.M., Barefoot, J., Williams, R.B., Haney, T., Zimet, G., 1987. Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery disease. Psychosom. Med. 49, 331-340]. Results of hierarchical linear regression models showed that the temperament subscales impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fatigability, sentimentality, and persistence increased the risk of depressive symptoms independently of a wide variety of known risk factors for depression. The association between fatigability and depressive symptoms was stronger for participants with low social support than for those reporting high social support. The sample was restricted to men and women aged 20-35 at baseline and no clinically significant cut-point for depression was defined. Our results strengthen the view that depressive symptoms are independently influenced by temperamental dispositions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-232
Number of pages6
JournalJOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
Volume83
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Personality
  • Prospective design
  • Social support
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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