The Belly-Button Chord: Musical Experiences during Pregnancy and their Effect on Mother-Child Interdependency

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


In this qualitative research, the impact of holistic music education in mother-child early interactions was investigated based on Grounded Theory (Charmaz, 1994). The fetus’/infant’s development was explored based on the ethological theory (Hinde, 1992). It was assumed that musical experiences would have an impact on both the mother and the unborn baby. This study aims to clarify the justifications of music education, and to find new methods to benefit early interaction as well as new evidence about the impacts of music. Musical impacts to a child’s holistic development and musical development were underlined through constructivist theory (Cobb, 1994; Järvelä & Niemivirta, 1997; Levine et al., 1993; Pintrich et al. 1993; Salomon, 1993; Tynjälä, 1999; Von Glasersfeld, 1989). Goals to musical actions were set. Emotionality was seen in consciousness and in music. The sense, the emotions and the body worked together. The research material was analyzed via the Hyper Research and the Praat–softwares. Because of the varieties of personalities, musical genres, musical impacts, experiences of music, and music making ways and because of all the possibilities music can offer us, there is a good possibility to succeed in supporting communication skills like in the Belly-Button Chord Programme. This will be crucial information for the work of educators, including those who work with expecting and new mothers. This research is part of the author’s doctoral thesis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 28th ISME World Conference
Subtitle of host publicationMusic at all ages
EditorsWendy L. Sims
Place of PublicationPetrh, Western Australia
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780980456028
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes
Publication typeA4 Article in conference proceedings


  • music
  • early childhood music education
  • early mother-child interaction
  • musical communication
  • fetuses

Cite this