The Detection of Bacteria in the Maxillary Sinus Secretion of Patients With Acute Rhinosinusitis Using an Electronic Nose: A Pilot Study

Jussi Virtanen, Antti Roine, Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jura Numminen, Niku Oksala, Markus Rautiainen, Ilkka Kivekäs

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Abstract

Objective: Detecting bacteria as a causative pathogen of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a challenging task. Electronic nose technology is a novel method for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that has also been studied in association with the detection of several diseases. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze maxillary sinus secretion with differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) and to determine whether the secretion demonstrates a different VOC profile when bacteria are present. Methods: Adult patients with ARS symptoms were examined. Maxillary sinus contents were aspirated for bacterial culture and DMS analysis. k-Nearest neighbor and linear discriminant analysis were used to classify samples as positive or negative, using bacterial cultures as a reference. Results: A total of 26 samples from 15 patients were obtained. After leave-one-out cross-validation, k-nearest neighbor produced accuracy of 85%, sensitivity of 67%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 84%. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that bacterial positive and bacterial negative sinus secretion release different VOCs and that DMS has the potential to detect them. However, as the results are based on limited data, further conclusions cannot be made. DMS is a novel method in disease diagnostics and future studies should examine whether the method can detect bacterial ARS by analyzing exhaled air.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1330-1335
JournalAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
Volume132
Issue number11
Early online date2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • electronic nose
  • ion mobility spectrometry
  • maxillary sinusitis

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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