The effect of preoperative oral antibiotic use on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection after primary knee or hip replacement: a retrospective study with a 1-year follow-up

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotics are used for various reasons before elective joint replacement surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate patients' use of oral antibiotics before joint replacement surgery and how this affects the risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

METHODS: Patients having a primary hip or knee replacement in a tertiary care hospital between September 2002 and December 2013 were identified (n = 23 171). Information on oral antibiotic courses purchased 90 days preoperatively and patients' chronic diseases was gathered. Patients with a PJI in a 1-year follow-up period were identified. The association between antibiotic use and PJI was examined using a multivariable logistic regression model and propensity score matching.

RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-eight (0.68%) cases of PJI were identified. In total, 4106 (18%) joint replacement operations were preceded by at least one course of antibiotics. The incidence of PJI for patients with preoperative use of oral antibiotics was 0.29% (12/4106), whereas for patients without antibiotic use it was 0.77% (146/19 065). A preoperative antibiotic course was associated with a reduced risk for subsequent PJI in the multivariable model (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.73). Similar results were found in the propensity score matched material (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18-0.65).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral antibiotics before elective joint replacement surgery is common and has a potential effect on the subsequent risk for PJI. Nevertheless, indiscriminate use of antibiotics before elective joint replacement surgery cannot be recommended, even though treatment of active infections remains an important way to prevent surgical site infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1021-1025
Number of pages5
JournalClinical microbiology and infection
Volume25
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Antibiotic use
  • Prevention
  • Prosthetic joint infection
  • Risk factors
  • Surgical site infection

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

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