The impact of force magnitude on the first and second maxillary molars in cervical headgear therapy

Tuula Talvitie, Mika Helminen, Susanna Karsila, Reeta Varho, Luca Signorelli, Pertti Pirttiniemi, Timo Peltomäki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Aim: To study the effect of force magnitude on the maxillary first and second molars in cervical headgear (CHG) therapy.

Material and methods: In this controlled clinical trial, patients (n = 40) were treated with CHG with a light (L, 300 g, n = 22) or a heavy force (H, 500 g, n = 18) magnitude. The subjects were asked to wear CHG for 10 hours a day for 10 months. The outer bow of the CHG facebow was lifted up for 10-20 degrees and the inner bow was expanded 3-4 mm. Adherence to instructions and force magnitude were monitored using an electronic module (Smartgear, Swissorthodontics, Switzerland). Panoramic and lateral radiographs before (T1) and after treatment (T2) were analysed using a Romexis Cephalometric module (Planmeca, Finland) focussing on the angular, sagittal, and vertical positions of the permanent first and second molars.

Results: According to the cephalometric analysis of the maxillary first and second molars, distal tipping occurred during T1-T2 in the H group (P = 0.010 and 0.000, respectively), and the change was greater in the H group compared to the L group (P = 0.045 and 0.019, respectively). Based on the panoramic analysis, tipping occurred in the distal direction during therapy in the H group in the second molars compared to the midline or condylar line (P = 0.001 and 0.001; P = 0.008 and 0.003 on the right and left, respectively).

Conclusion: With heavy force magnitude, the maxillary first and second molars can tilt more easily in the distal direction even if the CHG was used less. Distal tipping of the molar can be considered to be a side effect of CHG therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)648-657
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • maxilla
  • molar tooth

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


Dive into the research topics of 'The impact of force magnitude on the first and second maxillary molars in cervical headgear therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this