The triad of current asthma, rhinitis and eczema is uncommon among adults: Prevalence, sensitization profiles, and risk factors

Teet Pullerits, Erik P. Rönmark, Linda Ekerljung, Mona Andersson Palmqvist, Monica Arvidsson, Roxana Mincheva, Helena Backman, Hannu Kankaanranta, Pinja Ilmarinen, Madeleine Rådinger, Bo Lundbäck, Bright I. Nwaru

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Background: Coexistence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied in children, but data are lacking in adults. As new treatments emerge, epidemiological data on the coexistence are needed. Aims: To study the prevalence of concomitant asthma, rhinitis and eczema in the general adult population and among those sensitized to aeroallergens, and to study associations between background characteristics and risks of phenotypes of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. Methods: In the West Sweden Asthma Study, phenotypes and sensitization profiles of 1103 randomly selected adults (16–75 years) were assessed. The methods included measures of serum-IgE and structured interviews on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, their associated symptoms, and relevant risk factors. Results: Among all participants and in those sensitized, 2% and 6% had concomitant asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, and the condition did not differ by age or sex. Corresponding figures for asthma and rhinitis, but not eczema, was 8% and 19%, respectively. Determinants of coexistence of the three conditions were family history of asthma/allergy, body mass index, and occupational exposure to gas, dust and fumes. Allergic sensitization in those with asthma, rhinitis and eczema was found in 78%, in those with asthma and rhinitis but not eczema in 65%, in those with asthma and eczema but not rhinitis in 40%, while only 5% were sensitized among those having asthma only. Conclusions: In the general adult population about 2% have concomitant asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. Of sensitized adults, about 6% has coexistence of the three conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106250
JournalRespiratory Medicine
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Allergic sensitization
  • Combined asthma-rhinitis-eczema
  • Population study
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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