Third-harmonic generation microscopy of undeveloped photopolymerized structures

Leevi Kallioniemi, Shambhavee Annurakshita, Godofredo Bautista

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Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is demonstrated as a powerful technique to visualize undeveloped photopolymerized microstructures within a negative photoresist film. By comparing the THG microscopy images of developed and undeveloped single-photon polymerized structures in a SU-8 film, THG was found to provide sufficient contrast for distinguishing polymerized and unpolymerized regions. This also suggests that the technique can be used as a complementary technique to visualize the effect of photoresist development where microstructure shrinkage could occur. In addition, we applied the technique to visualize a three-photon polymerized microstructure that was fabricated in the same microscopy setup. This demonstrates the potential of the technique for in situ microscopy of photopolymerized microstructures in three dimensions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2961-2967
Number of pages7
JournalOSA Continuum
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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  • Raman microscopy
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • X ray microscopy

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