Towards Smarter Positioning through Analyzing Raw GNSS and Multi-Sensor Data from Android Devices: A Dataset and an Open-Source Application

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The state-of-the-art Android environment, available on a major market share of smartphones, provides an open playground for sensor data gathering. Moreover, the rise in new types of devices (e.g., wearables/smartwatches) is further extending the market opportunities with a variety of new sensor types. The existing implementations of biometric/medical sensors can allow the general public to directly access their health measurements, such as Electrocardiogram (ECG) or Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). This access greatly increases the possible applications of these devices with the combination of all the onboard sensors that are broadly in use nowadays. In this study, we look beyond the current state of the art into the positioning capacities of Android smart devices and wearables, with a focus on raw Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements that are still mostly lacking in the research world. We develop a novel open-source Android application working in both smartphone and smartwatch environments for multi-sensor measurement data logging that also includes GNSS, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) magnetometer, and a barometer. Four smartphones and one smartwatch are used to perform surveys in different scenarios. The extraction of GNSS raw data from a wearable device has not been reported yet in the literature and no open-source app has existed so far for extracting GNSS data from wearables. Not only the developed app but also the results of these measurement surveys are provided as an open-access dataset. We start by defining our methodology and the acquisition protocol, and we dive into the structure of the dataset files. We also propose a first analysis of the data logged and evaluate the data according to several performance metrics. A discussion reviewing the capacities of smart devices for advanced positioning is proposed, as well as the current open challenges.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number4781
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • low-power electronics
  • smart devices
  • smartphone
  • wearables
  • measurements
  • Android

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


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