Trade-Off between Task Accuracy, Task Completion Time and Naturalness for Direct Object Manipulation in Virtual Reality

Jari Kangas, Sriram Kishore Kumar, Helena Mehtonen, Jorma Järnstedt, Roope Raisamo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Virtual reality devices are used for several application domains, such as medicine, entertainment, marketing and training. A handheld controller is the common interaction method for direct object manipulation in virtual reality environments. Using hands would be a straightforward way to directly manipulate objects in the virtual environment if hand-tracking technology were reliable enough. In recent comparison studies, hand-based systems compared unfavorably against the handheld controllers in task completion times and accuracy. In our controlled study, we com-pare these two interaction techniques with a new hybrid interaction technique which combines the controller tracking with hand gestures for a rigid object manipulation task. The results demonstrate that the hybrid interaction technique is the most preferred because it is intuitive, easy to use, fast, reliable and it provides haptic feedback resembling the real-world object grab. This suggests that there is a trade-off between naturalness, task accuracy and task completion time when using these direct manipulation interaction techniques, and participants prefer to use interaction techniques that provide a balance between these three factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
JournalMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3D visualization
  • Controller interaction
  • Hand tracking
  • Object manipulation
  • Virtual reality

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


Dive into the research topics of 'Trade-Off between Task Accuracy, Task Completion Time and Naturalness for Direct Object Manipulation in Virtual Reality'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this