Transnational turn and national models of higher education: The case of Finland

Arja Haapakorpi, Taina Saarinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The Nordic countries share a particular policy based on the idea of a welfare society, social values, trust and a Nordic type of democracy (Jacobsson & Lægreid & Pedersen, 2003). Nordic countries are, according to many studies, high trust countries which are characterized by ethnic homogeneity, Protestant religious traditions, good government, wealth, and income equality (Delhey & Newton, 2005). Nordic higher education policy has traditionally complied with this ideology. Universities in the Nordic countries have been funded and controlled by the state and they have been tuition-free. Economic equity in Nordic higher education has not only been a value-based pattern, but also an efficient and effective tool in labour, the economy and social policies. A highly-educated labour force promotes developments of the national economy and a stable and safe society, with active and equal citizenship. For example, according to Jalava (2012), higher education in Finland has promoted the economy, wellbeing and opportunities for social mobility and, in addition, universities have been arenas for active political citizenship from the end of 60s to the late 70s, during the expansion of universities and the related funding increase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-200
Number of pages14
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication typeNot Eligible


  • Higher education policy
  • Internationalization of higher education
  • Outsourcing of policy
  • Quality assurance English as medium of instruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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