Traumatic muscle injury

Pascal Edouard, Gustaaf Reurink, Abigail L. Mackey, Richard L. Lieber, Tania Pizzari, Tero A.H. Järvinen, Thomas Gronwald, Karsten Hollander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Traumatic muscle injury represents a collection of skeletal muscle pathologies caused by trauma to the muscle tissue and is defined as damage to the muscle tissue that can result in a functional deficit. Traumatic muscle injury can affect people across the lifespan and can result from high stresses and strains to skeletal muscle tissue, often due to muscle activation while the muscle is lengthening, resulting in indirect and non-contact muscle injuries (strains or ruptures), or from external impact, resulting in direct muscle injuries (contusion or laceration). At a microscopic level, muscle fibres can repair focal damage but must be completely regenerated after full myofibre necrosis. The diagnosis of muscle injury is based on patient history and physical examination. Imaging may be indicated to eliminate differential diagnoses. The management of muscle injury has changed within the past 5 years from initial rest, immobilization and (over)protection to early activation and progressive loading using an active approach. One challenge of muscle injury management is that numerous medical treatment options, such as medications and injections, are often used or proposed to try to accelerate muscle recovery despite very limited efficacy evidence. Another challenge is the prevention of muscle injury owing to the multifactorial and complex nature of this injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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