Työhyvinvointi ja sen määrittäjät sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon johtajilla

Niina Herttuala

Research output: Book/ReportDoctoral thesisCollection of Articles


The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the work well-being of social and health care managers and the factors that determine it. The aim of the study was to find out which factors support work well-being and which prevent it, and to describe care managers’ work well-being and related factors. In addition, the study created a framework to describe work well-being for social and health care managers, as well as a questionnaire based on the framework.

In the first phase of the study, a literature review was used to investigate the factors that support or prevent the work well-being of those in management positions. Literature searches were conducted in 2016 and supplemented in 2018. A total of 22 original studies were selected for review, and content analysis was used to identify factors that support and prevent managers’ work well-being. In addition, thematic interviews with social and health care managers (n=7) were used to investigate factors that support and prevent their work well-being. The interviews were conducted between November 2017 and March 2018. The data from the interviews were analyzed by content analysis using an inductive approach.

Based on the literature review and interviews, a work well-being framework was created, with five categories: 1. individual factors; 2. social factors in the workplace; 3. professional support from one’s own manager; 4. organizational factors; 5. work-related factors. All five categories include several factors that affect work well-being, either positively or negatively.

In the next phase of the study, a questionnaire was created, consisting of 76 Likert-scaled questions. The questionnaire was used to collect survey data from health and social care managers (n=281) in different professions, including (but not limited to) social care, nursing, and medicine. The respondents worked at different organizational levels of public health and social care organizations in South and Central Ostrobothnia, Finland.

The survey data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Dunn-Bonferroni post hoc test, logistic regression analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha ratio.

The results indicate that the questionnaire is consistent, although there is a need for some modification of the form. Work well-being was connected to length of management experience, level of management, and professional group. Better work well-being was associated with working in upper management (framework category organizational factors), at least 26 years of management experience (framework categories individual and organizational factors), and working as a medical director or head of a nontherapeutic professional group (framework category organizational factors). On the other hand, there was a risk of poorer work well-being for managers in the middle of their careers, i.e. those with 6–15 years of management experience (framework category professional support from one’s own manager) or 16–25 years of management experience (framework categories social factors in the workplace, professional support from one’s own manager, and organizational factors), and also for nurse managers (framework category social factors in the workplace).

The results provide information on different categories of the work well-being of health and social care managers by background variable, so that development measures can be targeted at the groups that particularly need it. At the same time, development measures can also be targeted at specific categories of work well-being as necessary. The questionnaire can be used to determine the state of work well-being among health and social service managers when organizations want to find out the state of their well-being for development measures.
Original languageFinnish
Place of PublicationTampere
ISBN (Electronic) 978-952-03-3084-2
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (articles)

Publication series

NameTampere University Dissertations - Tampereen yliopiston väitöskirjat
ISSN (Print)2489-9860
ISSN (Electronic)2490-0028

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