Volatility of a Ship’s Emissions in the Baltic Sea Using Modelling and Measurements in Real-World Conditions

Oskari Kangasniemi, Pauli Simonen, Jana Moldanová, Hilkka Timonen, Luis M.F. Barreira, Heidi Hellén, Jukka Pekka Jalkanen, Elisa Majamäki, Barbara D’Anna, Grazia Lanzafame, Brice Temime-Roussel, Johan Mellqvist, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Shipping emissions are a major source of particulate matter in the atmosphere. The volatility of gaseous and particulate phase ship emissions are poorly known despite their potentially significant effect on the evolution of the emissions and their secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential. An approach combining a genetic optimisation algorithm with volatility modelling was used on volatility measurement data to study the volatility distribution of a ship engine’s emissions in real-world conditions. The fuels used were marine gas oil (MGO) and methanol. The engine was operated with 50% and 70% loads with and without active NOx after-treatment with selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The volatility distributions were extended to higher volatilities by combining the speciation information of the gas phase volatile organic compounds with particle phase volatility distributions and organic carbon measurements. These measurements also provided the emission factors of the gas and particle phase emissions. The results for the particle phase volatility matched well with the existing results placing most of the volatile organic mass in the intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOC). The IVOCs also dominated the speciated gas phase. Partitioning of the emissions in the gas and particle phases was affected significantly by the total organic mass concentration, underlining the importance of the effect of the dilution on the phase of the emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1175
Number of pages19
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • aerosols
  • atmospheric emissions
  • marine emissions
  • volatility
  • volatility basis set

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)


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