Wrist-worn device combining PPG and ECG can be reliably used for atrial fibrillation detection in an outpatient setting

Harri Juhani Saarinen, Atte Joutsen, Kirsi Korpi, Tuomas Halkola, Marko Nurmi, Jussi Hernesniemi, Antti Vehkaoja

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Aims: The aim was to validate the performance of a monitoring system consisting of a wrist-worn device and a data management cloud service intended to be used by medical professionals in detecting atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Thirty adult patients diagnosed with AF alone or AF with concomitant flutter were recruited. Continuous photoplethysmogram (PPG) and intermittent 30 s Lead I electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were collected over 48 h. The ECG was measured four times a day at prescheduled times, when notified due to irregular rhythm detected by PPG, and when self-initiated based on symptoms. Three-channel Holter ECG was used as the reference. Results: The subjects recorded a total of 1,415 h of continuous PPG data and 3.8 h of intermittent ECG data over the study period. The PPG data were analyzed by the system’s algorithm in 5-min segments. The segments containing adequate amounts, at least ~30 s, of adequate quality PPG data for rhythm assessment algorithm, were included. After rejecting 46% of the 5-min segments, the remaining data were compared with annotated Holter ECG yielding AF detection sensitivity and specificity of 95.6 and 99.2%, respectively. The ECG analysis algorithm labeled 10% of the 30-s ECG records as inadequate quality and these were excluded from the analysis. The ECG AF detection sensitivity and specificity were 97.7 and 89.8%, respectively. The usability of the system was found to be good by both the study subjects and the participating cardiologists. Conclusion: The system comprising of a wrist device and a data management service was validated to be suitable for use in patient monitoring and in the detection of AF in an ambulatory setting. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov/, NCT05008601.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1100127
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ambulatory
  • atrial fibrillation
  • electrocardio graphy
  • photoplethysmography
  • wearable sensors

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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