A social-ecological model of working from home during COVID-19

Katherine Pawluk De-Toledo, Steve O’Hern, Sjaan Koppel

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkeliScientificvertaisarvioitu


Working from Home (WFH) is emerging as a critical measure for reducing transport demand. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that trip avoidance measures, especially WFH, could help address Sustainable Development Goal 11.2 (creating sustainable transport systems in cities) by decreasing commuter trips by private motor vehicles. This study aimed to explore and identify the attributes that supported WFH during the pandemic and construct a Social-Ecological Model (SEM) of WFH within the context of travel behaviour. We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 stakeholders from Melbourne, Australia and found that WFH during COVID-19 has fundamentally changed commuter travel behaviour. There was a consensus among participants that a hybrid-work model will emerge post-COVID-19 (e.g., working three days in the office and two days at home). We identified 21 attributes that influenced WFH and mapped these attributes across the five traditional SEM levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community and public policy). In addition, we proposed a sixth higher-order level: “global”, to reflect the worldwide phenomena of COVID-19 and computer programs that also supported WFH. We found that WFH attributes were concentrated at the intrapersonal (individual) and institutional (workplace) levels. Indeed, workplaces are key to supporting WFH in the long-term. Whereby, workplace provision of laptops, office equipment, internet connection and flexible work policies enable WFH, and unsupportive organisational cultures and managers are potential barriers to WFH. This SEM of WFH benefits both researchers and practitioners by providing guidance of the key attributes required to sustain WFH behaviours post-COVID-19.

DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaE-pub ahead of print - 2023
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä


  • Jufo-taso 2

!!ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Development
  • Transportation


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