The field of information security and privacy is currently attracting a lot of research interest. Simultaneously, different computing paradigms from Cloud computing to Edge computing are already forming a unique ecosystem with different architectures, storage, and processing capabilities. The heterogeneity of this ecosystem comes with certain limitations, particularly security and privacy challenges. This systematic literature review aims to identify similarities, differences, main attacks, and countermeasures in the various paradigms mentioned. The main determining outcome points out the essential security and privacy threats. The presented results also outline important similarities and differences in Cloud, Edge, and Fog computing paradigms. Finally, the work identified that the heterogeneity of such an ecosystem does have issues and poses a great setback in the deployment of security and privacy mechanisms to counter security attacks and privacy leakages. Different deployment techniques were found in the review studies as ways to mitigate and enhance security and privacy shortcomings.
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