Analysis of inequalities in personal exposure to PM2.5: A modelling study for the greater London school-aged population

Lauren Ferguson, Jonathon Taylor, Phil Symonds, Michael Davies, Sani Dimitroulopoulou

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkeliScientificvertaisarvioitu

6 Lataukset (Pure)


Exposure to air pollution can lead to negative health impacts, with children highly susceptible due to their immature immune and lung systems. Childhood exposure may vary by socio-economic status (SES) due to differences in both outdoor and indoor air pollution levels, the latter of which depends on, for example, building quality, overcrowding and occupant behaviours; however, exposure estimates typically rely on the outdoor component only. Quantifying population exposure across SES requires accounting for variations in time-activity patterns, outdoor air pollution concentrations, and concentrations in indoor microenvironments that account for pollution-generating occupant behaviours and building characteristics. Here, we present a model that estimates personal exposure to PM2.5 for ~1.3 million children aged 4–16 years old in the Greater London region from different income groups. The model combines 1) A national time-activity database, which gives the percentage of each group in different residential and non-residential microenvironments throughout a typical day; 2) Distributions of modelled outdoor PM2.5 concentrations; 3) Detailed estimates of domestic indoor concentrations for different housing and occupant typologies from the building physics model, EnergyPlus, and; 4) Non-domestic concentrations derived from a mass-balance approach. The results show differences in personal exposure across socio-economic groups for children, where the median daily exposure across all scenarios (winter/summer and weekends/weekdays) is 17.2 μg/m3 (95%CIs: 12.1 μg/m3–41.2 μg/m3) for children from households in the lowest income quintile versus 14.5 μg/m3 (95%CIs: 11.5 μg/m3 – 27.9 μg/m3) for those in the highest income quintile. Though those from lower-income homes generally fare worse, approximately 57 % of London's school-aged population across all income groups, equivalent to 761,976 children, have a median daily exposure which exceeds guideline 24-h limits set by the World Health Organisation. The findings suggest residential indoor sources of PM2.5 are a large contributor to personal exposure for school children in London. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure in the home (for example, via the maintenance of kitchen extract ventilation and transition to cleaner cooking fuels) should therefore be prioritised along with the continued mitigation of outdoor sources in Greater London.
JulkaisuScience of the Total Environment
Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämääräsyysk. 2023
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 2023
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä


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