Despite major efforts by clinicians and researchers, cardiac arrhythmia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Experimental work has relied on combining high-throughput strategies with standard molecular and electrophysiological studies, which are, to a great extent, based on the use of animal models. As this poses major challenges for translation, the progress in the development of novel antiarrhythmic agents and clinical care has been mostly disappointing. Recently, the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) has opened new avenues for both basic cardiac research and drug discovery: now there is an unlimited source of CMs of human origin, both from healthy individuals and patients with cardiac diseases. Understanding arrhythmic mechanisms is one the main use-cases of hiPSC-CMs, in addition to pharmacological cardiotoxicity and efficacy testing, in vitro disease modeling, developing patient-specific models and personalized drugs, and regenerative medicine. Here, we review the advances that the hiPSC-based modeling systems have brought so far regarding the understanding of both arrhythmogenic triggers and substrates, while also briefly speculating about the possibilities in the future.
- Jufo-taso 1