Can online particle counters and electrochemical sensors distinguish normal periodic and aperiodic drinking water quality fluctuations from contamination?

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkeliScientificvertaisarvioitu

10 Lataukset (Pure)

Abstrakti

Early warning systems monitoring the quality of drinking water need to distinguish between normal quality fluctuations and those caused by contaminants. Thus, to decrease the number of false positive events, normal water quality fluctuations, whether periodic or aperiodic, need to be characterized. For this, we used a novel flow-imaging particle counter, a light-scattering particle counter, and electrochemical sensors to monitor the drinking water quality of a pressure zone in a building complex for 109 days. Data were analyzed to determine the feasibility of the sensors and particle counters to distinguish periodic and aperiodic fluctuations from real-life contaminants. The concentrations of particles smaller than 10 μm and N, Small, Large, and B particles showed sudden changes recurring daily, likely due to the flow rate changes in the building complex. Conversely, the concentrations of larger than 10 μm particles and C particles, in addition to the responses of electrochemical sensors, remained in their low typical values despite flow rate changes. The aperiodic events, likely resulting from an abnormally high flow rate in the water mains due to maintenance, were detected using particle counters and electrochemical sensors. This study provides insights into choosing water quality sensors by showing that machine learning-based particle classes, such as B, C, F, and particles larger than 10 μm are promising in distinguishing contamination from aperiodic and periodic fluctuations while the use of other particle classes and electrochemical sensors may require dynamic baseline to decrease false positive events in an early warning system.

AlkuperäiskieliEnglanti
Artikkeli162078
JulkaisuScience of the Total Environment
Vuosikerta872
Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä9 helmik. 2023
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 10 toukok. 2023
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä

Julkaisufoorumi-taso

  • Jufo-taso 2

!!ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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