This study examined the identifiability and early cognitive and motivational markers of low reading and arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of these characteristics between Finnish third graders (n = 197) with low fluency in reading, arithmetic, or both revealed, first, that the majority of third graders with low arithmetic fluency showed low arithmetic skills already at first-grade spring, whereas children with low reading fluency were identified from the second-grade fall onward. Second, all groups with low fluency showed low rapid automatized naming and counting skills across the primary school years, while in other cognitive skills these groups showed different patterns. Third, all groups with fluency problems demonstrated low self-efficacy and self-concept in the domain in which they had difficulties. The present findings enhance understanding about the emergence, stability and potential early cognitive and motivational markers of single and comorbid fluency problems in reading and arithmetic.
|Julkaisu||LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - heinäk. 2022|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä|
- Jufo-taso 2