One of the main criticisms of participatory planning is its tendency to produce mediocre outcomes due to the compromises made in the search for consensus. As a remedy, there have been recent proposals to enrich participatory processes with stronger visionary leadership. We want to broaden this debate by highlighting the relationship between successful leaderless self-organisation and more conventional forms of participation. We argue that although processes driven by self-organisation can be difficult and confusing, they hold strong creative potential. We demonstrate their dynamics by using an analogue model that contrasts liquid movement with social movement. We conclude that participatory processes with a high amount of self-organisation have not only strong creative potential, but also the potential to constitute a new politics of participation in cities.
- Jufo-taso 2
!!ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development