Synthesis and characterization of two A(2)B(2)-type monoisomeric phthalocyanines and phthalocyanine-fullerene (Pc-C-60) dyads, in which fullerene is regioselectively attached to phthalocyanine with two linkers, are described. H-1 NMR spectroscopy results clearly indicate an e addition pattern of the fullerene moiety in trans-dyad 9, and apparently a cis-3 addition pattern in cis-dyad 10. The possible spatial arrangements of 9 and 10 were further examined by molecular modeling. The dyads have polar (-OH) side chains on the fullerene side of the dyad providing a possibility to produce oriented donor-acceptor (D-A) Langmuir monolayers on aqueous subphase, which can be shifted onto a solid surface. When deposited on a solid electrode material, parallel vertical alignment of the phthalocyanine and fullerene moieties in 100% dyad monolayer was obtained and vertical electron transfer from Pc to C 60 upon photoexcitation was demonstrated. Introduction of the dyads as an oriented interfacial monolayer between the photoactive layer and metal anode improved the power conversion efficiency in inverted organic solar cells.
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