Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Multiple molecular subtypes, heterogeneity, and their ability to metastasize from the primary site to distant organs make breast cancer challenging to diagnose, treat, and obtain the desired therapeutic outcome. As the clinical importance of metastasis is dramatically increasing, there is a need to develop sustainable in vitro preclinical platforms to investigate complex cellular processes. Traditional in vitro and in vivo models cannot mimic the highly complex and multistep process of metastasis. Rapid progress in micro- and nanofabrication has contributed to soft lithography or three-dimensional printing-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems. LOC platforms, which mimic in vivo conditions, offer a more profound understanding of cellular events and allow novel preclinical models for personalized treatments. Their low cost, scalability, and efficiency have resulted in on-demand design platforms for cell, tissue, and organ-on-a-chip platforms. Such models can overcome the limitations of two- and three-dimensional cell culture models and the ethical challenges involved in animal models. This review provides an overview of breast cancer subtypes, various steps and factors involved in metastases, existing preclinical models, and representative examples of LOC systems used to study and understand breast cancer metastasis and diagnosis and as a platform to evaluate advanced nanomedicine for breast cancer metastasis.
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2023|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A2 Katsausartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä|
- Jufo-taso 1
!!ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Materials Science(all)