Particulate black carbon (BC) affects global warming by absorbing the solar radiation, by affecting cloud formation, and by decreasing ground albedo when deposited to snow or ice. BC has also a wide variety of adverse effects on human population health. In this article we reviewed the BC emission factors (EFs) of major anthropogenic sources, i.e. traffic (incl. marine and aviation), residential combustion, and energy production. We included BC EFs measured directly from individual sources and EFs derived from ambient measurements. Each source category was divided into sub-categories to find and demonstrate systematical trends, such as the potential influence of fuel, combustion technologies, and exhaust/flue gas cleaning systems on BC EFs. Our review highlights the importance of society level emission regulation in BC emission mitigation; a clear BC emission reduction was observed in ambient studies for road traffic as well as in direct emission measurements of diesel-powered individual vehicles. However, the BC emissions of gasoline vehicles were observed to be higher for vehicles with direct fuel injection techniques (gasoline direct injection) than for vehicles with port-fueled injection, indicating potentially negative trend in gasoline vehicle fleet BC EFs. In the case of shipping, a relatively clear correlation was seen between the engine size and BC EFs so that the fuel specific BC EFs of the largest engines were the lowest. Regarding the BC EFs from residential combustion, we observed large variation in EFs, indicating that fuel type and quality as well as combustion appliances significantly influence BC EFs. The largest data gaps were in EFs of large-scale energy production which can be seen crucial for estimating global radiative forcing potential of anthropogenic BC emissions. In addition, much more research is needed to improve global coverage of BC EFs. Furthermore, the use of existing data is complicated by different EF calculation methods, different units used in reporting and by variation of results due to different experimental setups and BC measurement methods. In general, the conducted review of BC EFs is seen to significantly improve the accuracy of future emission inventories and the evaluations of the climate, air quality, and health impacts of anthropogenic BC emissions.
- Jufo-taso 3
!!ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Science(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health