The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine

Sanna T. Jaatinen, Marja R.T. Palmroth, Jukka A. Rintala, Tuula A. Tuhkanen

    Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkeliScientificvertaisarvioitu

    11 Sitaatiot (Scopus)


    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9–99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered.
    JulkaisuEnvironmental Technology
    Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä2016
    DOI - pysyväislinkit
    TilaJulkaistu - 2016
    OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä


    • Jufo-taso 1


    Sukella tutkimusaiheisiin 'The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine'. Ne muodostavat yhdessä ainutlaatuisen sormenjäljen.

    Siteeraa tätä