The synergistic role of sulfuric acid, ammonia and organics in particle formation over an agricultural land

Lubna Dada, Magdalena Okuljar, Jiali Shen, Miska Olin, Yusheng Wu, Laura Heimsch, Ilkka Herlin, Saara Kankaanrinta, Markus Lampimäki, Joni Kalliokoski, Rima Baalbaki, Annalea Lohila, Tuukka Petäjä, Miikka Dal Maso, Jonathan Duplissy, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkeliScientificvertaisarvioitu

2 Lataukset (Pure)


Agriculture provides people with food, but poses environmental challenges. Via comprehensive observations on an agricultural land at Qvidja in Southern Finland, we were able to show that soil-emitted compounds (mainly ammonia and amines), together with available sulfuric acid, form new aerosol particles which then grow to climate-relevant sizes by the condensation of extremely low volatile organic compounds originating from a side production of photosynthesis (compounds emitted by ground and surrounding vegetation). We found that intensive local clustering events, with particle formation rates at 3 nm about 5-10 times higher than typical rates in boreal forest environments, occur on around 30% of all days. The requirements for these clustering events to occur were found to be clear sky, a low wind speed to accumulate the emissions from local agricultural land, particularly ammonia, the presence of low volatile organic compounds, and sufficient gaseous sulfuric acid. The local clustering will then contribute to regional new particle formation. Since the agricultural land is much more effective per surface area than the boreal forest in producing aerosol particles, these findings provide insight into the participation of agricultural lands in climatic cooling, counteracting the climatic warming effects of farming.

JulkaisuEnvironmental science: atmospheres
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 2023
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä


  • Jufo-taso 1

!!ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution


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